In 1916, Marcus Garvey established the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) Branch in Harlem. Emphasizing unity between Africans and the African diaspora. He campaigned for an end to European colonial rule across Africa, and the political unification of the continent. He envisioned a unified Africa as a one-party state that would enact laws to ensure Black racial purity.
He was committed to the Back-to-Africa movement, arguing that many African-Americans should migrate there. The UNIA grew in membership and Garveyism ideas became increasingly popular. Garvey was a dramatic and invigorating public speaker. Harlem History features one of Garvey’s most powerful speeches from 1920, on Leadership and Black Empowerment.