In this teaching enrichment video, Akinyele Omowale Umojo explains the way that Black Americans engaged in armed resistance during the civil rights movement and how today’s stand your ground laws are impacted by this history. For more teaching tools visit:

Historian Akinyele Omowale Umoja is the author of We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance in the Mississippi Freedom Movement (NYU Press, 2013). Professor Umoja teaches in the Department of African-American Studies at Georgia State University.

To watch Dr. Mark Anthony Neal’s full interview of Dr. Umoja visit:


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A free-thinking individual who strives to maintain psychological balance between the two polar aspects of Human Nature; Desire and Conscience. However, These conditions can never be balanced because inertia will carry us to extremes. Balance is a constant struggle therefore I live by the principles of the HERU Interface